Evolution Of Biometric Technology

Biometric Technology has been around since 29000 BC when cavemen would sign their drawings with handprints. In 500BC, Babylonian business transactions were signed in clay tablets with fingerprints.

The earliest cataloguing of fingerprints dates back to 1881 when Juan Vucetich, an anthropologist and police officer who started collecting fingerprints of criminals in Argentina. All governments, notably the police departments, use fingerprints and in more than 100 years of database available, no two fingerprints, have been found to be identical. Hence a fingerprint uniquely identifies an individual.

Fingerprint comprises ‘ridges’ and ‘valleys’ which form the basis for the loops, arches, and contours seen on fingertips. The ridges and valleys have different kinds of breaks and discontinuities. These are called ‘minutiae’. From these minutiae, the unique features are located and determined.

Each finger has four to half-a-dozen minutiae points and there are in turn, two types of minutiae: ridge endings — the location where the ridge actually ends — and bifurcations, the location where a single ridge becomes two ridges.

The Electronic Device, A Biometric Fingerprint Scanner has literally brought a revolution in the field of biometric by making it possible to capture the fingerprint electronically and create a database which further can be used for matching. Based upon the unique features found in the minutiae – the location, position, as well as the type and quality of the minutiae -a `template’ is created using a Biometric Fingerprint Scanner. Template is smaller in size than a raw image and is based on ISO 197942-2 standard. This standard specifies formats on how minutiae points are determined and collected. The templates thus formed are saved into a database for further process/matching.

Biometric twins have not been found so far, making them the best means to identify and authenticate individuals.

2 thoughts on “TECHNOLOGY

  1. Dr Rajaram Powar says:

    very nice

  2. One of the wonderful posts we have found in ur blog…. Keep writing these precious articles…

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